The masterclass has now taken place. Watch the recorded broadcast below:
We are very excited to welcome Scottish producer Milton Jackson on Thursday 17th May at 4pm (BST) or 11am (EDT) as the next in our Live Masterclass Series (the first ever to be broadcast live via our YouTube channel).
He will be running through how he used a combination of Logic and Ableton Live to produce some of his most well-known tracks to date such as ‘Ghosts in My Machine’ and ‘DSI’.
At the end of the session he will field some questions from members of the audience and those of you watching live online via the live chat function.
Places in the audience are free to Point Blank students. However they are strictly limited and will be allocated on a first come first serve basis. Get in touch with email@example.com to book your place now.
A bit of background…
Just a year after he started making music on an MPC2000, Milton Jackson released his debut EP on Tronicsole in 2000. A year later followed his acclaimed debut LP ‘The Bionic Boy’ which led to Jockey Slut calling him ‘the most exciting thing to happen to UK house music’ and awarding it 5 stars.
Quick out of the blocks and showing no signs of slowing up, the subsequent decade has seen MJ release a steady stream of quality underground house music on labels including Tsuba, Dark Energy, Neurotraxx, Glasgow Underground and Freerange landing him DJ gigs at the biggest clubs and festivals around the world.
‘Ghosts In My Machines’ was the biggest selling deep house track of 2008 on Beatport, going on to win a Beatport Award for Best Deep House Track with Milton coming 3rd in the producer contest behind Jimpster and Dennis Ferrer!
More recently Milton has remixed Recloose for Carl Craig’s Planet E, formed a new collaboration with Munich’s SHOW-B ‘Pattern Select’ which saw the pair release a critically acclaimed EP on Delusions Of Grandeur and a remix for Huxley’s imprint ‘Saints & Sonnets’.
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Luke: Welcome along to Point Blank Music School where today we’re joined by DJ and producer Milton Jackson for the next installment in our Music Production Live Master Class series.
Milton’s here to give us a bit of an insight into some of his work in the studio and also to give a bit of an insight into some production techniques he’s used on some of his biggest tracks to date.
Without further ado, let’s get into it and give it up for Milton Jackson.
Milton: Okay, thanks guys. That’s not my real name. My real name is Barry, slightly unfortunately, not quite as cool. I thought I’d just start with a track I did for Free Range called ‘Ghost of My Machines’. It was a really big seller.
It won a Beat Port award back when Beat Port was pretty cool. I kind of, I was really obsessed by this guy called Les Baxter who was about in the ’60s. This is him here and that’s his press shot. It’s not quite the same as press shots these days where guys are in a tunnel in south London. He’s with his dog.
He did this track on ‘Nuke Rock’ which is a kind of Chopin track from the 18th century or something, but I kind of really liked it, and it’s in “E” minor which is quite a good key for house music and I wanted to use some of the sounds in this, sampling more in a hip hop style and a house style.
A lot of house guys sample house things, but this is kind of, I thought it would be cool to incorporate this into a track.
The Beastie Boys also sampled the same album. I’ll just give you a listen to the track if you’ve maybe not heard it.
That’s the sample there. Also from the track.
Really, when I make tracks it’s all about texture. It’s not really, a lot of guys are obsessed by beats and bass and everything which is cool, but I really like the texture of using samples and also soft synth and also trying to kind of get a happy medium between the two.
So that’s my track. I’ll go into the Logic session and show you what I mean by just trying to basically get a contrast between obviously soft synth and samples at the same time.
This was, that’s from the original Les Baxter track. It doesn’t sound quite as good here because I used a lot of outboard stuff and everything. The main kind of chord part is from ‘Predator’, which is really good soft synth. It just stopped. Using the chords, just messing with the chords.
It’s got a nice sound, but to me, like, a soft synth has a certain limitation to it and you’ve really got to back that up with some other textures, so this is just, like, an old road sample pitched to the same kind of key and it gets a nice kind of, it takes away a bit of the digital nature of it. It kind of gives it a kind of haunting feel.
For the break I used part of the original sample which is just here, just the very start of the track. Really when I try and do these things, it’s more about incorporating samples that maybe hip hop guys would use off vinyl, you maybe wouldn’t really associate with house music, to try and give it a bit of an edge above a lot of the soft synth sounds and a lot of house music sounds which are kind of tried and tested.
I tried to put these sounds in to try to give it kind of a variation.
So like here I use Contact a lot. This is just, again, off Les Baxter and I don’t really like, you can maybe get that sound massive or something but it would be really difficult to get that kind of gritty sort of quality to it.
That’s what kind of, what I try and go for anyway, so you’ll hear it kind of pitched up high.
The mix, it doesn’t sound particularly great here because it’s just coming out of this, and kind of towards the end it’s just a simple case of using just ES1. You get some good sounds out of ES1 actually, just “E” minor.
Milton: Not really. Really, I try and get the top of it all done first, all the textures, all the bass, all the sound, and worry about the beats afterwards because the beats, you just want the beats to sit underneath everything rather than…
I think, a lot of house music the beats take up too much space in the track because you start on the beats and the beats just take over everything and you’re not really thinking about kind of some of the more melodic aspects of it.
I think I just, yeah. Here it’s just a simple case of chopping it up. It gives you a nice fill.
Here again, it’s just a simple case of contact. I’ll get you that, those sounds. There I just choose that little section there, kind of chop up.
That’s just kind of the basis of that track, just trying to marry the kind of soft synth sounds with your more esoteric, I suppose, samples that you might find like in hip hop tracks or something like that.
The drums are pretty basic. They’re not particularly great, just to really fit underneath the track. It’s really, quite crap to be honest, but simple. It’s like, if you start with the drums and you make the drums amazing and then you take over everything and there’s no room really for everything underneath that, so they’re just pretty crap drums but they kind of work with, underneath the track.
I did this a while ago, so plug-ins wise, it’s all really basic as well, just Logic plug-ins. I don’t, I use UAD plug-ins as well and some of the Waves things like [inaudible 10:29], Aphex Exciter, which I’ll move on to after this. Really, that’s basically this track done.
I’ll show you the next track while this one’s loading up, another track I did for Free Range called DSI which just came out about three months or two months ago. I’ll play this whilst I’m loading it up.[inaudible 12:41] before I kind of go through it. I use iDrum a lot. Unfortunately I couldn’t get iDrum to work on this computer for some reason so I’ve kind of had to bounce what iDrum does. It’s just a simple step sequencer just like Re-Drum or something like that.
This track, again, it’s just I’ve got stuff like ES1 which I put through Aphex because it’s, like, it just sounds too soft synth-y, and then you put, I don’t know if you’ve seen this, CLE Drums, which is, again, not really supposed to be used on this, I suppose, for drums, but if you bypass the two it just sounds a bit soft synth-y and you put them both on, it just takes out a bit of the digital-ness of it.
Then again, I’ll just back that up with, I’ll use Contact a lot of [inaudible 13:56] and, this is the wrong one. Yeah, so it’s just basically, and then I came up with a sample to double up the main part which you wouldn’t really, it’s kind of got a [inaudible 14:20] kind of overtone to it.
Again, I’ll just put hundreds of sounds in Contact, just various samples, and just kind of vibe off these and try and sit on the keyboard and try and get various parts together. Just little snippets and then try and make a loop out of that.
Again, just another kind of fill. I don’t actually know… Yeah, so that, so just again, just messing about with samples and then trying to pitch it so it’s all in key.
The main pattern is just here. It’s just off a drum and bass records from, like, I don’t know, 20 years ago, well, no, 10 years ago, something like that, to get you that kind of underlying part.
Here, I kind of rewired in Ableton. I used the iDrum in Ableton but I’ve just had to bounce everything that I’ve done. Again, it’s just programming and iDrum to get your parts.
I’ll take kind of snippets of sound, again, in iDrum and kind of program it together, and the box sample is just “Ain’t No Stopping Us Now”, so it’s kind of quite obvious.
Some simple loops, but when you kind of join them all together, just kind of, again, a nice hard sound off drum machines and stuff and then kind of some of the sounds you get off loops from old records, kind of combine the two.
Again, here I just, like, a simple [inaudible 18:01], kind of hide the [inaudible 18:04] up here and all the MPC quantize parts so that you can quantize, I don’t know if it comes up here, but they’re in here. You know, the basic MPC 60-75% so that I can midi quantize with the MPC settings to get the MPC string.
That’s the eighths in there, and then the sixteenths. You can get these online. It’s pretty easy, and then it’s like, that just gives you, well, 50-75% in here and then it can get that groove from there and then you can apply that to anything in midi or in audio as well.
If you want to, like, you can chop up audio and you can [inaudible 19:18] zero and this should work, and then you can quantize selected events. The MPC stuff’s not showing up in here, but then you can quantize audio into the MPC grooves and things. It’s pretty simple in Ableton, but as well in Logic. Logic’s quite good as well.
Yeah, so here’s just another more of Contact parts where I’ve got all the various samples in to just bring in at the start of a session just to try and vibe off the different sounds and see what I can come up with and then sometimes you’ve just got to kind of pitch them about.
Just here, just to get it all in key. Here you’ve got pad sounds which have just [inaudible 20:25] of 13. I suppose it could be -1 as well, just to keep it all in key and everything sounding nice, but up here it doesn’t sound as good.
It’s really kind of, just a simple way of working. I mean, I don’t know how Logic Environment works. I don’t know, I’m just going to try and keep it simple. Try and keep the textures nice, all the sounds nice, a nice balance between soft synths and samples and just try and keep a balance between everything, but really there’s not, it’s not the most complex tracks in the wold.
I’m sure you’ve probably seen more impressive stuff, but it’s got a nice feel to it and that’s kind of what I’m aiming for, a nice rhythm, a nice sound, a nice texture.
I’ll kind of load up the next one. This is a track I’ve just done for Tsuba. It’s kind of on their vinyl-only label. I’ll just give you a listen to it while I load it up.
Yeah, so it’s, again, a similar thing. I love the CLE Drums and Aphex Vintage, Aural Exciter, also M-Presser which is a really heavy-duty compressor, and just bus most of into that kind of, those three. Kind of high hats there has a nice swing.
Again, side chaining put three parts together, just kind of groove it together, the bass, the various snippets. I try and create loops out of tiny samples together.
This is just a vocal sample which I’ve used the pitch thing. I’ve had to consolidate it, but you don’t even use the pitch thing in here, transpose, to try and get it in the same key.
Here’s another iDrum part. I’ve had to bounce it because I couldn’t get iDrum to work on this, but it’s kind of similar. There’s 15-20 different individual sounds to create a full loop. Kind of snippy snare there as well just to kind of give a bit more swing.
Yeah, I used CLE Drums again. It just seems to give you a nice sound for house music. You kind of hear it there. Kind of lost the drums. There we go. Simple.
Again, I’m not really too into drums. I just, as long as you kind of underpin the whole thing it sounds really good and are quite simple then the rest should really take care of the track itself as long as you’ve got a nice swing to it.
Yeah. VB stuff’s good. Use the, where is it? Oh, I don’t have it on this. It’s got a nice little soul vibe and everything.
I don’t have all my kind of plug-ins on this laptop unfortunately, but then what I’ll do is I bounce it through a [summing] amp which has got, like, 16 outputs, 16 inputs, sorry, which I take from a sound card.
I have 16 outs into the 16 ins on the summing input and then I kind of record it back into the computer.
It just kind of seems to separate the sound nicely. It gets the sound out of the computer. Then what I’ll do is I’ll edit it, I’ll edit the WAV in here and just choose little bits that I like then arrange it with a full [inaudible 28:31] rather than messing about with all this kind of stuff because I think it just makes it sound a bit tighter when you loop up certain sections.
So here I’ve just looped up this section. It kind of mix it to sound a bit tighter when you do it for some reason.
Here the whole track sound sort of hinges on basically one sound which is that kind of “womp”. I mean, without that, it kind of gives it a lot more energy coming out of the break. So again, off iDrum.
Yeah, so basically, again, really simple. It’s just house music is pretty simple. It’s basic kind of parts. So this is the kind of “B”-side to that, similar to the Tsuba records. I’ll just put this in.
It kind of gives you an idea of this track, which, again, similar sort of set-up. All it hinges on a lot of these, sort of, bass sounds which are kind of almost nondescript. You don’t really have a key but they kind of fill up that bass frequency and these kind of claps which are kind of giving it the swing.
Up here you’ve got just an Oberheim part. I use an Oberheim Matrix 1000 which is kind of a really cheap rack-mounted soft synth that you can get and record a lot of that into the computer.
Here I’ve just pitched it down three semi-tones. It’s just kind of the basis of it, and here I’ve kind of got a hiss sound which is actually a sample from the Beach Boys believe it or not, at the end of one of their recordings. It’s just a kind of nice, it gives it a bit of texture underneath it. Again, just kind of pitching vocals about here.
Up here, just a kind of organ part. Again, I do all of this in iDrum. I have a little sample and I’ll program it in iDrum so that it kind of happens exactly where I want it to.
I really, the kind of basis of it is coming from the, just, these sort of nondescript bass sounds and this bass echo which is really in another sort of sound.
It’s really, like, kind of the way I do it is just try and get as many samples as possible, kind of bunch them into the right key and just try and get a vibe out of it from there rather than a loop from a sample or something like that. It carries the whole track.
So I’ll try and create a track out of maybe 15-20 different little snippets of samples.
So another sort of thing I wanted to talk about was I did this remix for “Planet E” which kind of came about, I did an edit on SoundCloud of “Recluse”. It’s the Carl Craig remix of “Recluse”.
Here’s where I talk about how sometimes I did it, I put it online on my SoundCloud just thinking it would be cool to play out and they, Planet 80 got in contact with me and, like, Carl Craig and stuff and Monte Luke who runs the label.
They wanted to put out this particular remix which I just really did as an edit to play out, this lesson of how sometimes you put something on SoundCloud it can pay off sort of thing.
So it’s basically that. I kind of remixed a remix and put it on SoundCloud and something kind of good came of it. So it’s just one of these, you know, sometimes you think if you do that then the label will get in contact with you and tell you take it down basically.
It was kind of one of those good situations where they decided to put it out so that was kind of good. Yeah, does anyone have any questions or anything?
Luke: Yeah, just take the mic, I guess.
Audience: Hi. How did you go about remixing the track? Did you get the stems for it or did you just take the track and-
Milton: I took the, I had the vinyl and I just took little bits out of the vinyl, like, breaks out of the vinyl and then just, I suppose it would be like getting the stems but when I sampled off the vinyl it kind of had a really nice, the vinyl was really old, so it kind of had that really, if you hear it on here, had a really nice sound to it, underneath it.
Because it was so old it was really covered in crackles and dust and crap and everything, and so I just took all the breaks that were there and I just put my own beats underneath it and stuff.
Then what we did was they were going to send me the stems but they kind of liked the way it was. It was more like an edit, like, you know, if you were to take a disco thing and edit it up into house music or whatever, it’s kind of got a nice complete feel to it, whereas if you take all the stems it becomes a bit contrived I suppose.
Milton: Yeah. That’s basically what happened. It was a really kind of nice surprise actually when it all kind of came together.
Audience: What samples did you use, the old track you had, 1998?
Milton: That, oh yeah, that was, unfortunately because I had that in “Reason” and I just, I’ve lost all the parts for that. Again, it’s just, I sampled jazz records, like, little chords. I think it was like four or five jazz records I sampled to do that.
Unfortunately I don’t have, I was going to bring that today actually, but I don’t, I couldn’t. It’s quite old, so I just lost all the parts and stuff.
Yeah, I try and sample jazz records. Again, the Les Baxter guy, like ‘60s stuff, Exotica music, sort of French library music. All these things I’ll try and sample and then just try and double it up with more kind of modern sounds like “Massive” or “Contact5”, not “Contact5”, but “Predator” and stuff like that, just to try and get the two together just so that the texture kind of is nice.
It’s hard to explain but those were, like, loads of old Jazz records, basically all kind of pitched about. I would just sit and pitch samples and then try and get everything in key and then go from there really.
Audience: Thanks man.
Audience: I noticed you were using Ableton as a rewire.
Audience: I was wondering, what do you primarily use Ableton for? Is it mostly doing, like, your percussion or something like that?
Milton: Yeah. Really, it’s become, I said this earlier to the guys before I started, I really love Ableton for putting down ideas and it’s really quick, but the sound of it sometimes doesn’t really blow me away.
I mean, if you look at it, when you’re in Ableton, I’ve always wondered what this is, High-Q, why would you need to have, it should be the highest quality available. I don’t really buy this.
Sometimes a lot of people kind of have a big thing about the Ableton sound. It’s good, but I have to use Logic really to mix everything, and then from Logic I try and get everything out of the computer so that you’ve got, I’ve got an API 2500 and some compressors and things which just gives it a nicer feel. I mean, when you’re hearing it here, compared to in here it’s a bigger difference.
Really I’ll try and put the things in Ableton to get an idea done quick because sometimes you can get lost in Logic. It can be a bit annoying. I’ve just started using Logic 9, but Logic 8 used to crash all the time and used to kill the vibe sometimes. But, I’ll use Ableton to put down ideas.
I’ll load up maybe 10 iDrums and then all the parts were originally iDrum and then just try and chop things together in iDrum, and you put in chop groups so each thing cuts everything off, so it’s like kicking hat cut each other off.
I don’t like having a kick drum, a high hat, a snare. I’m not really into that. I try and keep, I try and group things together and try and, if you use the MPC and you use, one hit will mute off another hit because you’re using monophonic or whatever. I like that because it gives you a better groove.
Each track bounces off each other. If you’ve just got, like, high hat here, kick here, and each sound is completely independent of each other sound it’s just really, like, everything sounds really kind of separate, whereas if you’ve got chop groups in iDrums, I wish I could show you. It’s really simple. It’s just, like, a monophonic thing.
Luke: So one-one.
Luke: Each hit cuts off another.
Milton: Yeah, it’s cool. Yeah, so you’ll have a long hat but it’ll be cut off by the kick and then you can set another sound, like, a little clip or something and it will cut the sound off as well, and that way you can create much better grooves because everything’s cutting each other off and it’s not like “Here’s the high hat. It’s compressed.” and it’s like “Here’s the kick. It’s compressed.” and everything’s just really, you hear it in the beat, it’s just like, kind of like this, so that’s really kind of why I use in iDrum in Ableton to do.
Just to try keep everything really groovy. A similar thing with compressors, side chain compression, it’s a bit of a kind of dirty word because it’s like trance music uses side chain, but on this Oberheim sound you, just a little bit of side chain, again, contributes to the groove.
The last track I had about four tracks all side chained together.
So really, it’s all about grouping things together and getting the groove really tight, because if everything’s bouncing off each other that’s when you get the best groove. If everything’s, like, 300, you see these guys and they’ve got, like 300 different tracks.
It’s like, each sound has got its own little bit and everything. I’m not really into that. Like, I like to group everything together, put effects on a group have all the beats bouncing off each other, have everything kind of site chained against each other so it’s all kind of one kind of living thing rather than everything’s separate which I don’t really think that, I mean, for this kind of music, I don’t think it really works.
Again, it’s like, you kind of worry about stuff like that, but then people in clubs aren’t interested either. You know, they don’t really care if you use, I mean, people say, “Oh, the Abletons sound different” but I’ve played the Ableton tracks in clubs and no one, it’s not like they’re coming up to the DJ booth going “Is this made in Ableton?” You know, it’s like, it’s just kind of nobody really cares. We care, but, you know, it’s kind of, yeah.
Luke: Well, we’ve got a couple of questions from the guys online.
Luke: First of all, Nick asks “Do you have any particular sort of reverb, favorite reverb plug-in?”
Milton: I’ve never really been able to find one that I really like. It’s really hard. I mean, I think unless you’re going to go out and buy, I use Impulse Responses and I don’t have it here. I didn’t think a reverb question was coming up.
But you know, you can go into Sound Designer and you can import impulse settings from commercial available hardware where they record the reverb itself, and that’s kind of a good fudge, I suppose, between, but really some think the UAD reverb’s okay but it’s really hard to find a good reverb.
I’ve never really, I’ve found some okay, there’s some good plates in Sound Designer. The dark plate, I think it’s a medium, yeah, the plates in Sound Designer are pretty good, but I would generally try and find impulse settings which you can buy commercially online where guys record it.
They’ll record a click or something and the way that they’re recording guitar amps or whatever, and the way that impulse responds to the click they’ll model it in Sound Designer, so that’s generally what I try and use anyway.
Luke: Grubber asks “Do you use any hardware at all?”
Milton: Yeah. Well, I use the Oberheim, the Matrix 1000, which is just a really cheap rack-mount thing, and you can edit it using a program in the Mac. I use Emu 6400. I hook that up and I use Touch USC in the iPad to, it’s pretty cool to control the filters, so I can’t have iPad here and you can move the filters about on the screen.
It’s just like midi control, and just, you know, I’ll buy and sell stuff on eBay every month or so and get really bored of it and then sell it.
I think some of the, Emu has a great sound but it’s such a pain in the neck to use compared to something like Contact or whatever. So yeah, just a lot of outboard stuff, and I use, the guy in Germany made a summing amp, he makes, it’s called ‘Genuine Audio’.
He hand makes them and basically you put in your 16 inputs and it will mix it into two so you’re getting the sound out of the computer. There’s no faders or anything, but it just gets the sound out of the computer. Then I record that two input back into the computer, so it’s just like a circle basically.
Luke: And there’s a couple more. Jason asks, “Well, you’ve already touched on how grooves are a really important part of house music and your music”, and he asks specifically, like, with regards to the kick and the bass, “Do you put a lot of thought into the relationship between those two elements?”
Milton: Yeah. I mean, I don’t really overly think about it, but you can know instinctively when it’s working or not and yet the last track, the bass, was again, bouncing off the kick drum and again, that’s just a consequence of, like, chop groups and iDrums where those things are cutting each other out.
So basically that’s, that process will always work. If something’s cutting it, the other thing out, then you’ll always get a good groove rather than everything just flabbing about in the track and it sounds really flabby and a bit kind of, a bit kind of, a bit messy.
Luke: Okay, cool. Has anyone got any others? Okay. One more from online. Someone asks “How did you get your first release?”
Milton: Yeah, that’s another thing I was going to talk about. I just forgot. Basically I, obviously, like, when you’re into music and everything, plug-ins, and the software and everything’s really cool but when I first started out I worked for this company called ‘Tronics Soul’, this is back in like 2001 or something. I was like, 17, 18, and I suppose it was like somewhere like this where you’ve got a studio to come into a vibe off of and it was various people coming to work.
They had an office just next door, so it was really cool because you used to go in every day and there’s loads of people working together. I suppose, like here, you’ve got a vibe to work off of, whereas if you’re sitting in a bedroom just on your own it doesn’t matter what kind of equipment you’ve got.
Sometimes that can be a bit, not soul-destroying, but a bit boring, whereas I really enjoyed that. I suppose it’s like in Berlin at the moment. Everyone’s working in studios together and all that stuff and you’re going to get much better ideas just working with other people and getting vibes rather than worrying too much about equipment, which is great.
It’s great all the things you can do, but when you work with other people you can get much, just much better ideas, I reckon anyway. Yeah, that was a good time.
Luke: So is that how you got [inaudible 51:32]?
Milton: Yeah, sorry. I worked with Tronics Soul and I just did stuff in the MPC 2000 and just, I used to, like, sample off vinyl, and then I had this old-school CD recorder where you actually recorded the track in real time.
So you pressed record on the CD recorder and it would, like, record it in real-time and I would just send out demos like that. So this is kind of back in the day when people used to send in record reactions via fax and stuff as opposed to email.
So it was, like, I feel really old, but the guy Stevie at Tronics Soul kind of put out a lot of my records in the beginning. Then I started working with Glasgow Underground. I worked a bit with Milo before he was really kind of huge, and then I took a bit of a break from it and then kind of, now I work a lot with Free Range, Tsuba, and Neurotracks and the stuff we we do [inaudible 52:30] label. So, yeah.
So sorry if, I’ve maybe not been as in-depth as I could have been. I know a lot of people have much more exciting Logic sessions and stuff, but I just kind of wanted to show you that I do it simply and it’s really through keeping it simple that that’s how you keep the vibe and everything.
Whereas I see a lot of guys and they’ve got Logic sessions that are just like encyclopedias and its’ really impressive, but sometimes a lot of the groove gets lost in that. I try and keep it as simple as possible and together as possible. Hopefully that’s kind of, you’ve seen that today.
Luke: Any more questions from you guys at all? Okay. In that case we’ll probably wrap up there. Just enough time to say a big, big thank you to Milton Jackson for coming down.
Luke: Let’s all give him a round of applause. And for everyone watching at home, if you want to come and find out a little bit more about Point Blank, about what we do, just visit the website, pointblanklondon.com or pointblankonline.net.
As ever if you want to come and see the studios in person just book a place on the studio tour every Wednesday at mid-day or Saturday at 3:00 p.m. and I will see you very, very soon. Thanks for watching. Bye-bye.